What are female hormones?

Hormones are chemical messengers that, when released, produce different consequences in target organs and tissues. More specifically, female sex hormones are responsible for controlling the reproductive and menstrual cycle of women and the appearance of sexual characteristics, among other issues. The control of female hormone levels is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are two small areas located in the brain that are responsible for regulating most of the hormones that circulate in the body (pituitary hormones). In addition, they are in charge of controlling the hormonal production in the ovaries, whose released sex hormones (ovarian hormones) regulate the function of the female reproductive system, being also responsible for the appearance of the secondary sexual characteristics of the woman. In case of hormonal alterations, these will translate into menstrual cycle disorders and fertility failures, among others. Therefore, hormonal blood analysis is an essential test to assess female fertility.

Pituitary hormones

The most important pituitary hormones (also called gonadotropins) are:

*Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH).

 It acts on the ovary, favoring the development and maturation of the ovarian follicles, where the ovules grow and mature.

*Luteinizing hormone(LH). It is responsible for triggering follicular maturation and ovulation, which leads to the formation of the corpus luteum (empty follicle after ovulation) and the secretion of progesterone by it.

*Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH). It exerts its action on the thyroid gland, regulating its activity.

*Prolactin. During pregnancy, it stimulates the production of milk in the mammary glands and the synthesis of progesterone in the corpus luteum.

Ovarian hormones

The previously named hormones will stimulate the release, in the ovaries, of the sex hormones, which are:

*Estrogens: Estradiol is an estrogenic hormone released by the growing ovarian follicle which, among other functions, is responsible for activating the release of LH and thus inducing ovulation in each menstrual cycle. In addition, together with progesterone, it participates in the preparation of the endometrium for embryo implantation.

*Progesterone: It is a steroid hormone released mainly by the corpus luteum and the placenta in case of pregnancy. It acts at some point in the 2d segment of the menstrual cycle (luteal phase), getting ready the endometrium for embryo implantation. It is also responsible for keeping the endometrium intact during pregnancy. When there is no pregnancy, the decreased level of progesterone causes the vaginal shedding of the endometrium (menstruation).

*Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH). Participates in the formation and development of follicles. It allows to assessment of the ovarian reserve and the fertility of the woman.

When should you perform the hormonal analysis?

The analysis of hormones in the blood is carried out to evaluate the level of the female hormones in charge of regulating the ovarian cycle of the woman. In this way, it allows assessing the fertility potential of the woman.

Together with transvaginal ultrasound, analysis of basal hormones makes it possible to define the state of the woman’s ovarian reserve. This helps determine the total number of oocytes she has in her ovaries and if ovulation is occurring.

The main hormones that are analyzed within a hormonal analysis in women include:

*Follicle stimulating hormone.

*The luteinizing hormone.

*Estradiol.

Progesterone.

*Anti-Müllerian hormone.

*Prolactin.

*TSH.

As for the time to perform the analysis, the ideal is to be able to carry it out between the third and fifth day of the menstrual cycle (3 and 5 days after menstruation). During these days, the hormones are in their basal state and can be compared with reference values.

The exceptions are progesterone, which should be taken on day 21 of the cycle to see if ovulation has occurred, and anti-Mullerian hormone, which can be taken at any time during the menstrual cycle.

What hormonal values ​​are normal?

The correct functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and its corresponding adequate levels of female hormones will determine a normal menstrual cycle, including ovulation and the potential fertilization and implantation of the embryo in the uterus.

The hormonal analysis will show values ​​for each female hormone. Its comparison with normal values ​​will allow us to rule out or, in the event of finding differences concerning normal values, help in the diagnosis of pathologies or disorders that could cause said differences.

Normal reference values ​​for female hormones are:

*FSH. From 3 to 9 mIU/ml indicates a good ovarian reserve (that is, a sufficient number of follicles to obtain a pregnancy). Conversely, values ​​between 10 and 13 mIU/ml indicate decreased ovarian reserve. Values ​​above 13 are usually common at the onset of menopause.

*LH. Normal values ​​are between 2 and 10 mIU/ml. Values ​​greater than 20 mIU/ml indicate that ovulation is about to occur. High values ​​at the beginning of the menstrual cycle may be caused by situations such as polycystic ovary syndrome.

*TSH. Normal values ​​are between 0.2 and 4.7 mIU/ml. Values ​​above indicate hyperthyroidism and below, hypothyroidism. Both alterations can negatively influence ovulation and fertility.

*Estradiol. The values ​​at the beginning of the cycle must be between 27 pg/ml and 165 pg/ml. Those values ​​below 50 pg/ml show adequate ovarian reserve, while high levels may indicate the presence of cysts or low ovarian reserve.

*Progesterone. Normal progesterone values ​​on day 21 of the cycle are between 5 and 20 ng/ml when ovulation has occurred normally. On day 3, progesterone should be less than 1.5 ng/mL.

*Prolactin. In non-pregnant women, normal values ​​are between 0 and 20 ng/ml. Prolactin values ​​greater than 30 ng/ml indicate that hormonal regulation may be altered and also ovulation. In pregnant women, normal levels are between 10 and 300 ng/ml.

*AM H. Normality is between 0.7 and 3.5 ng/ml. Levels below 0.7 ng/ml indicate low ovarian reserve. Conversely, values ​​above 3.5 ng/ml may indicate ovarian overstimulation produced by assisted reproduction treatment.

Fasting hormone analysis

The extraction of a blood sample for the complete female hormonal analysis must be carried out on an empty stomach. The test must be carried out between the third and fifth day of the rule if menstruation is had.

The Best Hematology Analyzers

Every hematology laboratory must deliver the correct result to the first analysis, as well as allow the valuable ones to be focused on the most critical tasks to ensure this guarantee, the essential option is to have first-class equipment; Both in veterinary and human use, hematology analyzers are a basic in equipment, guaranteeing reliability and efficiency on the way to diagnosis.

About Hematology:

Hematology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the study of the morphology of blood and the tissues that produce it. In this way, it is permissible to generate diagnoses, as well as the treatment of diseases of the blood and its cellular components.

Its field of action covers the cellular and serum composition of the blood, the coagulation process, the formation of blood cells, the synthesis of hemoglobin, and all the related diseases, problems, and disorders.

Hematology studies red blood cells, leukocytes, and platelets, analyzing their relative proportions, the general condition of the cells, and the diseases caused by imbalances between them.

Red blood cells have several important functions, however, it should be noted that the most relevant is to transport oxygen and CO2. Leukocytes, for their part, are an essential element in the body’s immune system, while platelets play an essential role in blood clotting.

Of course, it is worth mentioning that all cells are necessary, but they must be in the right proportions, otherwise the different systems would become unbalanced.

About Hematology Analyzers

Hematology analyzers are devices used to perform complete blood counts (CBCs), or blood counts. Its main task is to carry out quantitative and qualitative analyses of blood elements, such as red blood cells or erythrocytes, white blood cells or leukocytes, and platelets or thrombocytes.

A hemogram or hematological analysis reflects in its entirety those elements or components of the blood, exposing their number or their proportion in the patient. In hematology, this is one of the most frequently requested laboratory tests and is part of the basic study that is required for diagnostic orientation and evaluation of patients, because it offers a general vision and is opportunely viable as an indicator of anemia, diseases infections, coagulation problems, among other possible diagnoses.

Currently and in recent years, given a constant technological evolution, laboratories have incorporated high-tech automated equipment and innovative techniques that allow the delivery of results in less time, also guaranteeing greater precision and accuracy and reducing the number of measurement errors.

The Best Hematology Analyzers For Human Use:

BC-20s Mindray:

This model offers minimum size and maximum capacity. The new line of 3-part hematology analyzers represents the pinnacle of this effort. The compact and powerful BC-20s analyzer is fully featured and still affordable. The BC-20s has all the features a 3-part analyzer should have.

-CBC+3-DIFF, 19 parameters+3 histograms

-Performance: 40 samples per hour

-Intuitive operation system with 8.4-inch TFT touchscreen

-Sampling with open vial

-Storage of 200,000 results with histograms

-Calibrators and reagents, original quality control

BC-30s Mindray

This model offers minimum size and maximum capacity. The new line of 3-part hematology analyzers represents the pinnacle of this effort. The compact and powerful BC-30s analyzer is fully featured and still affordable. The BC-30s has all the features a 3-part analyzer should have.

-CBC+3-DIFF, 21 parameters+3 histograms

-Performance: 70 samples per hour

-Intuitive operation system with 10.4-inch TFT touchscreen

-Sampling with open vial

-Storage of 500,000 results with histograms

-Calibrators and reagents, original quality control

BC-5150

This parser is simply a 5 part of “CUTE”. Based on Mindray’s continuous innovation in the field of hematology, the BC-5150 is specially designed to support diagnostic laboratories whose primary need is differential CBC+5 total results, with relatively low daily sample volume, space-restricted laboratory, and tight budget.

-WBC 5-part distinction, 25 reportable parameters and 4 search parameters, 3 histograms, and 3 plots

-Processing capacity: 60 samples/ hour

-Easy-to-use software

-10.4 inch TFT touchscreen

-Storage of up to 40,000 samples

-15˙μL sample volume, ideal for pediatric use

NIHON KOHDEN 6510

Undoubtedly, one is a 100% reliable analyzer in the laboratory, with a differential in three parts and 19 parameters:

-Simultaneous measurement of 19 parameters: WBC, LY%, MO%, GR%, LY, MO, GR, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW-SD, RDW-CV, PLT, PCT, MPV, PDW;

-Capacity up to 60 samples / h

-LCD (touch screen) that responds to touch

-Two channels to measure, one for WBC/HGB (white blood cells and hemoglobin) and one for RBC/PLT (red blood cells and platelets)

-Minimum need for a sample volume of 30 μL.

-Memory up to 400 results with the possibility of connecting with external memory.

NIHON KOHDEN 7300

This analyzer is quite simple, it is an automatic model with 23 parameters and WBC 5 differential parts.

-More reliable clinical data through the “ADVANCED COUNT” function for lower PLT and WBC

-Lower cost per test with economical unstained 5PD measurement

-Low voltage operation with a larger screen and various suction modes

-55 μl sample aspiration for 5-part differential

-10 µL/20 µL for predilution mode

-10 µL for capillary mode.

Spincell 3

This hematology analyzer has the following characteristics:

-Touch screen

-60 tests per hour

-21 Parameters and 3 histograms

-More than 100,000 saved results

-Allows the connection with LIS and HIS

SPINCELL 5 PLUS

This hematology analyzer has the following characteristics:

-Automatic loader for up to 60 samples per hour.

-Multidimensional classification by laser.

-Automatic loader for up to 60 samples per hour

-WBC differentiation in 5 parts.

-Four reagents for the analysis of 28 parameters.

-Elimination of clots by cauterization.

-Determination of reticulocytes

SPINCELL 5 COMPACT

It is a compact 5 Diff analyzer that uses a semiconductor laser for the flow cytometry system. By calculating the different laser scattering angles, the team provides a comprehensive analysis, including cell size, lobularity, granularity, and complexity.

-Determination of reticulocytes

-Multidimensional classification by laser

-Up to 60 samples per hour

-Analyzes both whole blood and capillary blood samples

D-CELL360

3-part differential hematology analyzer featuring throughput of up to 60 tests/hour, easy-to-use graphical user interface, and large color LCD touch screen. Among its qualities, it also offers low reagent consumption and maintenance-free operation.

-Up to 60 tests/hour

-21 parameters/3 histograms

-Dual channel electrical impedance method for cell counting

-Colorimetric method for determination of HGB

-Cyanide-free lysing solution

-Low sample volume, and low reagent consumption.

-Whole venous blood/ capillary blood 9.8 l/ test

-Prediluted mode with 20 l / test

-Color touch screen, high definition 10.1 ”

The Best Hematology Analyzers For Veterinary Use:

BC-2800 Vet

Compact and fully automatic automatic analyzer for hematology with 19 parameters for CBC tests and microsampling technology. The intuitive interface can offer and guarantee a simple and efficient workflow.

-Differentiation of three WBC populations, 19 parameters, and three histograms for dog, cat, mouse, rat, rabbit, monkey, and horse

-Performance: 25 samples per hour

-Sample volume: 13 ul (whole blood)

-Storage of up to 10,000 sample results (including histograms)

-Large color LCD screen

MEK-6550J/K Reviews

This model of hematology analyzer represents a support in clinical decision-making, the MEK-6550J/K provides accurate results in only 60 seconds. All relevant information, including 21 parameters for dog, cat, cow, or horse, plus 3 histograms, is displayed in color on one screen, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and faster intervention.

-Automatic removal of jams after each measurement

-Automatic cleaning of the sampling nozzle after each measurement

-Automatic priming and cleaning when the appliance is turned on

-Automatic cleaning of the fluid route when turning off the equipment.

Applications of Hematology Analyzers

Hematology analyzers are mainly used for the diagnosis of disorders and problems related to blood signs, such as anemia, leukemia, or thrombosis.

Therefore, some of its most common applications include hematology services as part of the area of ​​clinical laboratories in hospitals.  

It must also be said, that some models are intended for a specific application in the veterinary sector.

*Undoubtedly, hematology analyzers will make a difference by performing an effective, reliable, and timely hematological analysis that will lead to the corresponding diagnosis. For human and veterinary use, having the best equipment will make a difference through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Automated hormone analyzer machine details

Model Number: BIOBASE 180, A Laboratory use Hormone analyzer machine CLIA Automated immuno blood test CLIA t3 t4 tsh

Automated hormones analyzer machine review

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