Health Conditions

High blood pressure disease: chart, symptoms, causes, more

Can you stop having high blood pressure disease? What can I do to control tension? Find out below if it is possible to combat hypertension and how you can do it.

Being a disease that affects almost 40% of the adult population, it is common to hear the following question about high blood pressure: can you stop being hypertensive? Is hypertension forever?

The short answer is yes, it is possible to control hypertension, although it is considered a chronic disease, and, therefore, lifelong controls will be required. However, many people manage to make permanent changes to their routines and lifestyle that allow them to control hypertension in the long term, thus reducing the risks it entails.

There are many factors involved in the control of high blood pressure, starting from a commitment on the part of the patient to improve their current situation that will be accompanied by changes in lifestyle.

Hypertension or high blood pressure occurs when blood hits the walls of the arteries too hard. This is due to the force with which it bombards the heart and the resistance of the arteries. Their size is also related: if the arteries are narrow and the heart pumps hard, the pressure rises. This can cause health problems. As we have mentioned, high blood pressure is very common in old age. More than half of older people have hypertension. This can lead to cardiovascular and kidney disease, so it is important to treat it to prevent damage.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on the walls of the veins as it circulates. Throughout the entire journey that the blood makes through the body, its force modulates, so when it leaves the heart the pressure is higher than when it reaches the heart again. It needs to go strong to ensure that both oxygen and nutrients reach the entire body. However, too much force is counterproductive, as is too little. In this article, we will explain what high and low blood pressure is, and how to normalize it and we will give examples of specific cases.

Decompensated blood pressure:

It should be noted that decompensated blood pressure does not exist as a concept. It is popularly used to refer to cases in which there is little difference between the high and low voltage, that is, the maximum and the minimum. When it comes to strength, it can vary. There are times when it is normal for it to happen, since we are doing sports and the tension goes up or we are meditating and the tension goes down.

Blood pressure chart

To know if you have low, high, or normal blood pressure, you must consult a table of values. Normal blood pressure values ​​vary depending on age. Normally, tension problems appear old. How to read the voltage? The upper value is the systolic blood pressure and the lower value is diastolic. What is normal tension in older people? When is blood pressure low and high? It depends on age and sex, but approximately an older person should have blood pressure at 90/140 mmHg. When do you have high blood pressure? When you are above this table of values ​​according to age on normal blood pressure:

blood pressure chart

As you can see, the older you are, the higher the normal tension usually is. To know the values ​​of low or high blood pressure disease with the language that is usually used outside the medical field, the figure on the right must be deleted. So, for example, from the age of 60, the correct low blood pressure value would be between 7 and 10, while the high blood pressure value would be between 11 and 16.

How to measure blood pressure well at home

Measuring blood pressure at home can be a useful tool to control and prevent hypertension, in addition to being a monitoring tool to inform our doctor.

Below, we provide you with the steps and tips to keep in mind on how to measure blood pressure at home:

*Before measuring blood pressure, it is recommended to take it after having rested for at least 5 minutes, and not having exercised for at least 30 minutes before the measurement. It is essential to be relaxed and not be in a hurry.

*It is important to avoid smoking, eating, and drinking exciting substances such as coffee or tea during the previous half hour.

*The position of the body is important: you must be seated, with your back straight and leaning on the back of the chair, with your feet touching the floor and in no case have your legs crossed. The hand and arm should be relaxed and in a resting position.

*The arm on which we will take the measurement should be supported approximately at the height of the heart, stretched and with the palm facing up.

*When placing the cuff, it is essential that it touches the skin directly, never on top of clothing, to adapt it to the actual diameter of the arm. The tube should fall through the front center of the arm so that the sensor is correctly located.

*When the cuff begins to be inflated, it is important that the patient does not speak, as this would affect the market values. Regularly measuring your blood pressure can prevent serious complications. Don’t underestimate the importance of these checkups: your health depends on it. Arm and wrist blood pressure monitors are suitable for regularly measuring blood pressure at home. These devices are precise and easy to use. Below, we present some of the best options available on the market.

Causes of high blood pressure disease

High blood pressure can have various causes, some of which may be congenital, while others are acquired throughout life, and directly related to our daily habits. Its causes may be:

*Congenital: in this case, what is transmitted through inheritance is a tendency or predisposition to develop high blood pressure values. If in our family there are blood relatives (parents, siblings) who have suffered from hypertension, it is important to focus and control our blood pressure regularly to prevent hypertension and treat possible alterations in time.

*Poor diet: Excessive intake of salt, foods rich in saturated fats, ultra-processed and sugars directly impact our health, favoring increased blood pressure, overweight, and diabetes, among other pathologies.

*Obesity: there is a close relationship between excess weight and high blood pressure disease, which together put cardiovascular health at risk. When you are obese there is more fat in the body. This fat needs oxygen and nutrients to survive, which it obtains through the blood, so the heart must work harder to circulate blood throughout the body; This overexertion leads to an increase in blood pressure.

*Lack of exercise and sedentary lifestyle: a sedentary lifestyle multiplies other risk factors that directly contribute to developing high blood pressure, such as obesity, diabetes, or cholesterol.

*Smoking: being one of the most harmful substances for hypertensive patients, tobacco causes an increase in blood pressure by causing blood vessels to narrow for a longer period. Besides. It causes our body to secrete adrenaline, which is capable of increasing our blood pressure and causing us a feeling of anxiety.

* High levels of stress: in a stressful situation, the heart rate accelerates and blood vessels constrict, causing an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, being constantly exposed to stressful situations impacts the development of high blood pressure and our cardiovascular health.

What is the main cause of high blood pressure?

Although there is no specific cause, it is necessary to highlight that any factor that increases pressure against the arterial walls is a possible cause of high blood pressure.

These causes can be diverse, but some more common ones include:

  • *Obesity and overweight.
  • *Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity.
  • *Smoking.
  • *Excessive alcohol consumption.
  • *Unbalanced diet.
  • *Stress.
  • *Family heritage.
  • *Diabetes.
  • *Advanced age.
  • *Sleep apnea.
  • *Kidney diseases.

With this, it is also important to highlight that high blood pressure can be the result of a combination of risk factors, therefore, it is key to pay attention to your lifestyle and follow your specialist’s recommendations to prevent and control hypertension.

Classification of blood pressure values

According to the European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology, the level of high blood pressure disease is divided into the following categories:

*Optimal: With systolic pressures less than 120 mmHg and diastolic pressures less than 80 mmHg.

*Normal: With systolic pressures between 120-129 mmHg and/or diastolic pressures between 80-84 mmHg.

*Normal-high: With systolic pressures between 130/85 mmHg and/or diastolic pressures between 139/89 mmHg.

*Grade I Hypertension: Systolic pressure 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure 90-99 mmHg.

*Grade II Hypertension: Systolic pressure 160-179 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure 100-109 mmHg.

*Grade III Hypertension: Systolic pressure greater than or equal to 180 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 110 mmHg.

Symptoms of high blood pressure

High blood pressure symptoms are a complex issue. How do I know if I have high blood pressure disease?  The only way to know is to measure it and keep a record. This can be done at home. But there is an exception: malignant arterial hypertension, that is,  a sudden large rise in blood pressure, does have symptoms. Some signs warn us of serious spikes in blood pressure. These are also the symptoms of increased blood pressure:

  • *Vertigo.
  • *Tingling in the extremities.
  • *Tinnitus.
  • *Confusion.
  • *Dizziness due to high blood pressure.
  • *Nausea.
  • *Very bad headache.
  • *Nasal bleeding.
  • *Blood spots in the eyes.
  • *Vomiting.
  • *Double vision or change of vision.
  • *Hear humming.
  • *Heart palpitations.
  • *Poor blood flow to the legs.

How to diagnose high blood pressure?

Blood pressure is checked with a cuff usually worn around the arm, which must be adjusted correctly. The cuff is inflated using a small hand-held inflator or machine.

Blood pressure measurement:

A blood pressure reading measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats (maximum value, called systolic pressure) and between beats (minimum value, called diastolic pressure). In this image, a machine records the blood pressure reading. This is known as automated blood pressure measurement.

The first time blood pressure is checked, it should generally be measured in both arms to determine if there is a difference. After that, the arm in which the highest value was measured should be used. The blood pressure reading has two values.

*Upper value (systolic pressure). The first (or higher) value measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats.

*Lower value (diastolic pressure). The second (or lower) value measures the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats.

Hypertension is diagnosed if the blood pressure measurement is 130/80 millimeters of mercury or more. A diagnosis of high blood pressure is based on the average of two or more measurements taken on different occasions. Blood pressure is grouped according to how high it is. This is called establishing the grade. Establishing the grade helps guide treatment.

Sometimes the lower blood pressure value is normal (less than 80 millimeters of mercury), but the upper value is high. This is called isolated systolic hypertension. It is a common type of high blood pressure disease in people over 65 years of age.

What is the treatment for high blood pressure?

Changing your lifestyle can help control high blood pressure disease. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes, including:

*Follow a heart-healthy diet with less salt.

*Do physical activity regularly.

*Maintain a healthy weight or lose weight.

*Limit alcohol consumption.

*No Smoking.

*Sleep 7 to 9 hours a day.

Medicines for high blood pressure disease:

The type of medication used to treat high blood pressure disease depends on general health and blood pressure. Two or more blood pressure medications often work better than one, and you will need to find the ones that work best for each person.

When taking blood pressure medication, it is important to know your desired blood pressure level. The blood pressure treatment goal should be less than 130/80 millimeters of mercury in these cases:

*Healthy adult 65 years or older,

*Healthy adults under 65 years of age with a 10% or greater risk of cardiovascular disease in the next 10 years.

*Chronic kidney disease, diabetes, or coronary artery disease

Ideal blood pressure can vary depending on age and conditions, especially if you are over 65 years old. Medications used to treat high blood pressure include the following:

*Diuretics.

*Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

*Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II).

*Calcium channel blockers.

Other medications commonly administered to treat high blood pressure are Alpha Blockers; Alphabetblockers; and Beta blockers, these are generally not recommended as a single medication, but they may be effective in combination with other blood pressure medications; Aldosterone antagonists; Renin inhibitors; Vasodilators; Central action agents.

Blood pressure medications should be given as directed by your doctor. Suddenly stopping certain blood pressure medications, such as beta-blockers, can cause a significant increase in blood pressure (rebound hypertension).

Resistant high blood pressure disease:

People can develop resistant hypertension if they take at least three different blood pressure medications, including a diuretic, but their blood pressure remains stubbornly high. When they take four different medications to control high blood pressure, the treating doctor must check for a possible second cause of high blood pressure.

Possible future treatments:

Researchers have studied the use of heat to destroy specific nerves in the kidney that may play a role in resistant hypertension. This method is called renal denervation.

Early studies showed some advantages. However, more established research found that it does not significantly reduce blood pressure in people with resistant hypertension. More research is being conducted to determine the possible role this therapy may have in the treatment of hypertension.

What to do when your blood pressure rises? 

Medical attention must be quick, so you should immediately go to the nearest doctor so they can confirm the suspicion and take action. Hypertensive patients can present several clinical problems if the treatment is not applied or if it is stopped. The symptoms and consequences will depend on the type of hypertension. High blood pressure causes the heart to pump harder and work too hard.

This causes serious health problems such as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), heart failure, retinal lesions, kidney failure, arteriosclerosis, heart attack, cardiovascular dementia… As we have mentioned, in most cases there are no symptoms of high blood pressure but are detected when performing a regular medical check-up. For this reason, some patients may suffer from heart disease or kidney problems without knowing that they have very high blood pressure. If you have some symptoms of a voltage rise that we mentioned in the previous section, the voltage may have risen quite a bit.

What is the normal blood pressure?

The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg.

**(Systolic =120 mm Hg)
**(Diastolic 80 mm Hg)

What is the normal blood pressure  Hypertension details
what is the normal blood pressure hypertension details

We highlight that there are two types of blood pressure:

Systolic blood pressure (SBP): measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts, that is, when it is beating and pumping blood to the body, it is the moment of maximum pressure.
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP): measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes, this is when it is at rest between beats and does not pump blood, that is, it is the moment of minimum pressure.
A normal blood pressure is around 120/80 mmHg, so if it increases continuously and constantly, it can lead to an increase in associated pathologies.

Read more: Best natural cholesterol lowering supplements

Tips for normal blood pressure

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is key to maintaining adequate blood pressure levels. For this reason, it is recommended that both older people and their caregivers pay attention to these recommendations:

Reduce salt intake: sodium directly contributes to increased blood pressure, so it is important to review the nutritional labels of packaged foods and reduce their use when cooking, possibly substituting other types of seasonings to add flavor.

Follow a balanced diet: in line with the previous point, it is important to encourage the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, eggs, and lean proteins such as chicken and fish. Likewise, the intake of processed products rich in saturated fats should be limited.

Maintain a healthy weight: excess weight in the elderly can lead to complications; A healthy weight lowers blood pressure and reduces cardiovascular and diabetes risk.

Practice regular exercise: physical activity is key to keeping blood pressure controlled in older people, placing special emphasis on those who have some type of reduced mobility and are in a wheelchair since they have a more sedentary life. In both cases, it is important to adapt an exercise routine according to the needs of each person and perform at least 30 minutes of daily activity.

*Reduce alcohol consumption and avoid smoking: both substances cause an increase in blood pressure and contribute to other health problems, so it is important to reduce and even eliminate their consumption, regardless of the patient’s age.

To conclude, and as a summary, we highlight that high blood pressure disease is a common condition in older people that can have a great impact on health if it is not treated and controlled properly, which is why we recommend leading a healthy lifestyle. undergo regular check-ups to monitor your blood pressure and follow the advice of our specialist doctor.

What are the normal blood pressure values ​​by age?

Normal blood pressure values ​​can vary depending on age, so knowing the variations according to each stage of life becomes a good resource to pay attention to our health.

These are the normal blood pressure values ​​according to each age range:

Young: Normal blood pressure varies depending on age and height, although generally, in young people between 14 and 19 years old, systolic blood pressure is between 110-120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure between 70-80 mmHg.

Adult: Blood pressure for adults between the ages of 20 and 59 is usually placed as a systolic pressure of less than 120 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of less than 80. These values ​​are represented as 120/80 mmHg.

Seniors: As we age, there is a weakening of the blood vessels, which is why after the age of 60 the possibility of being hypertensive increases. From this age onwards, normal blood pressure is less than 140/90 mmHg.

What is the normal blood pressure ​​in older people

Knowing the blood pressure values ​​in older people is of great importance to be able to carry out control. These values ​​can vary depending on age, sex, race, or even lifestyle.

Generally, normal blood pressure values ​​are considered when the systolic pressure (the “high”, as many people know) is less than 120 mmHg and the diastolic (or “low”) pressure is less than 80 mmHg. These values ​​are represented as 120/80 mmHg.

In older people, low blood pressure is considered when it is 90/60 mmHg. In this case, hypotension, or low blood pressure, can also put the health of our elderly at risk, as it can cause dizziness, fainting, lightheadedness, or blurred vision.

Regarding high blood pressure values ​​in the elderly, this is 140/90 mmHg or more. It should be noted that, in diabetic people, a disease very present in the elderly, levels greater than 140/85 mmHg are also considered high.

It is important to keep in mind that blood pressure values ​​in the elderly can vary throughout the day and depending on physical activity, so it is advisable to have regular monitoring to detect any changes and thus go to the doctor.

How to control blood pressure in the elderly

Regular monitoring of blood pressure in the elderly is essential, especially if high blood pressure disease has been diagnosed. These checks must be carried out by a medical specialist or a qualified health professional and must be carried out frequently to be able to monitor any changes.

In this case, in elderly people it is recommended to take blood pressure measurements three times a week, one of them on the weekend and the other two on any other day, to have control in different situations of physical activity. It is also recommended that the measurement day be taken twice: the first time as soon as you get up and the next time after twelve hours.

In any case, experts also recommend carrying out blood monitoring from home, using digital arm or wrist blood pressure monitors. In this case, it is important to keep a diary (physical or digital) to record the dates and values ​​and thus share it with your doctor for evaluation and correct adaptation of the treatment.

What can you do to control hypertension?

Although medication is an essential part of the treatment to control high blood pressure disease, it is important to note that there are changes in our habits and routines of daily life that can help control this disease. Some tips include:

*Assume that the medication is for life: Since high blood pressure is a chronic disease, control, and treatment are continuous in most life cases.

*Do not modify the doses of the medication: It is extremely important to follow the doses and indications prescribed by the doctor and not modify them on your own, as adverse effects could occur.

*Establish a daily routine for taking medication: Taking medication at the same time each day helps to develop medication adherence and therefore, keep blood pressure under control.

*Practice healthy habits: Practicing regular exercise, maintaining balanced and healthy eating habits, and reducing alcohol and tobacco consumption can help control and prevent high blood pressure.

*Consult your doctor with any questions regarding medication to have better control: Constant and trusting communication with your doctor is important to ensure that both the medication and the treatment are working correctly.

Regularly measuring your blood pressure can prevent serious complications. Don’t underestimate the importance of these checkups: your health depends on it. Arm and wrist blood pressure monitors are suitable for regularly measuring blood pressure at home. These devices are precise and easy to use. Below, we present some of the best options available on the market.

Ways to remember to take your blood pressure medication

There are simple ways to remember to take your medication to control high blood pressure, take note of the following tips:

*Take it at the same time each day (coinciding with meals or routine activities).

*Use a pill box marked with the days of the week.

*Ask your family members to remind you.

*Use a calendar to keep track.

*Post a reminder note in a visible place (like the refrigerator).

*Activate an alarm or reminder on your mobile.

*Install a specific application on your mobile for your reminders; different free options are very easy to use.

Are stress pills forever?

As we said before, High blood pressure disease is a chronic condition that requires long-term treatment, which can lead you to think that blood pressure pills are forever.

However, this need to take medication to treat high blood pressure may vary depending on the person, their habits, and other factors. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as weight loss, physical activity, healthy eating, or stopping smoking and alcohol help reduce blood pressure to controllable levels without the need for medication.

In the event of an improvement in high blood pressure values, it is important not to let your guard down and continue to maintain control accompanied by your doctor.

What happens if I stop taking blood pressure pills?

If your doctor has prescribed medication to control high blood pressure disease, it is important not to stop taking the blood pressure pills without his or her approval and supervision, since the medications only take effect when taken in their recommended doses and times.

So what happens if I stop taking the blood pressure pills?

The consequences range from small variations in blood pressure to “rebound” effects, in which it is then more difficult to control hypertension.

Furthermore, stopping the pills without medical supervision can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, abdominal pain, nausea, insomnia or even present a three-fold higher risk of suffering cardiovascular or cerebrovascular accidents compared to those patients who follow their medication regimen.

If you want to know more, you can visit the article with tips to lower blood pressure naturally.

How does each class of drug work?

1. Diuretics for high blood pressure disease

Diuretics have been used for more than 50 years and are one of the oldest classes of blood pressure medications. These medications, sometimes called “water pills,” lower blood pressure by removing extra salt (sodium) and water from the body through the kidneys. This decreases the amount of fluid flowing through your blood vessels and therefore lowers your blood pressure.

In addition to lowering blood pressure, diuretics also reduce inflammation and bloating. Some people who take diuretics have to urinate more frequently, although this does not happen to everyone, and most get used to this side effect over time.

There are three different subclasses of diuretics, and each works on different parts of the kidney to remove water and salt:

*Thiazide or thiazide-like: Considered the first choice of therapy if renal and cardiac functions are normal, common thiazide diuretics include: chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, and indapamide. Although they are considered safe, they can reduce the amount of potassium in the body. Additionally, a small percentage of people may develop gout or have high blood sugar levels when taking thiazides. So, if you have a history of gout, prediabetes, or a diagnosis of diabetes, your doctor may decide to start you on a different class of blood pressure medication. Close monitoring of your electrolytes may also be necessary while taking these medications.

*Loop diuretics: Used more often if you have pre-existing reduced kidney function, swelling in the extremities (edema), or heart failure; Common loop diuretics include: furosemide, bumetanide, and torsemide. Like thiazides, loop diuretics are generally safe, but some people may experience electrolyte disorders such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium deficiencies.

*Aldosterone antagonists for high blood pressure disease: These medications, also called potassium-sparing diuretics, can increase the level of potassium in the body. Common aldosterone antagonists include spironolactone and eplerenone which are most commonly prescribed to people who, in addition to high blood pressure, have heart failure. In a small percentage, spironolactone can cause gynecomastia (enlargement of breast tissue in men) and erectile dysfunction.

When you take any diuretic, your sodium, potassium, uric acid, calcium, and kidney function should be monitored regularly. If the diuretic is causing you to lose too much potassium, your doctor may recommend potassium supplements or eating specific foods high in potassium.

Anecdotally, people following a keto diet may be more sensitive to diuretics, as being in ketosis can also have a slight diuretic effect.

2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)

ACE inhibitors are another common first choice among blood pressure medications because they generally work well and have relatively few side effects. Common ACE inhibitors include benazepril, captopril, lisinopril, and enalapril. You can usually identify an ACE inhibitor when the drug name ends in “-il.”

ACE inhibitors work by blocking an enzyme in the body that produces a substance called angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes the arteries to narrow or constrict, causing an increase in blood pressure. By reducing the amount of angiotensin II produced by the body, ACE inhibitors help blood vessels dilate and relax, thereby lowering blood pressure.

This class of medication is commonly prescribed to people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease and is generally very well tolerated.

Typically, side effects, if they occur, are elevated potassium levels or cough. They may be relevant enough to switch to another blood pressure medication.

People taking ACE inhibitors may develop a rare allergic reaction called angioedema (a swelling of the lips and airways that makes it difficult to breathe). This reaction is more common among black people, women, and smokers, and requires stopping medication and seeking immediate medical attention.

It is important to note that women who are pregnant (or may become pregnant) should avoid using ACE inhibitors as these medications can be dangerous to the health of the mother and the developing fetus.

Recently, some reports have speculated that taking ACE inhibitors may potentially contribute to more severe coronavirus symptoms. This situation is being closely monitored, and both the American Heart Association and the Council on Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology have issued statements highlighting the lack of clear evidence supporting the harmful effect of ACE inhibitors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Current medical information recommends that high blood pressure disease patients continue treatment with their usual antihypertensive therapy unless otherwise directed by their doctor.

3. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs or ARBs)

Similar to ACE inhibitors, ARBs prevent angiotensin II from causing blood vessels to narrow. However, instead of blocking the formation of angiotensin II, these medications block the angiotensin II receptor in blood vessels, preventing a constriction or narrowing of the blood vessels.

Common ARBs include losartan, valsartan, and candesartan. You can usually identify an ARB by the name of the medication.

This class of medication is also considered a possible first-line therapy option for those with High blood pressure disease. Some patients, especially those who have kidney disease or who take potassium supplements, may have elevated potassium levels, so potassium levels and kidney function will need to be monitored.

Similar to those of ACE inhibitors, but less common, side effects of ARBs can include high potassium levels or a dry cough. An allergic angioedema reaction is also very rare and requires immediate medical treatment. Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant should also avoid using these medications, as is the case with I-ACE medications.

As noted above for ACE inhibitors, ARB medications should not be stopped due to concerns about interactions with the coronavirus without consulting your doctor.

4. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs or CCBs)

CCBs stop the entry of calcium into muscle cells, resulting in less narrowing of the arteries and a reduction in the force and speed of heart contractions. The result of all this is that blood pressure lowers. BCCs are also generally considered a first-line option.

The two main subclasses of BCCs are dihydropyridines (DHPs) and non-dihydropyridines (non-DHPs). Dihydropyridines act more on the arteries and non-dihydropyridines act more on the heart. Common CCBs include amlodipine, nifedipine, and diltiazem.

These medications are generally avoided in people with certain types of heart failure.

Additionally, dihydropyridine CCBs can cause swelling around the ankles, an effect more common in women than men. This type of swelling is usually reversible by decreasing the dose of the medication or stopping it.

5. Beta-adrenergic blockers (BB)

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents, known as beta-blockers, work by blocking the effects of the hormone epinephrine. Epinephrine causes blood vessels to narrow and the heart to beat faster and stronger. When the effects of epinephrine are blocked, blood pressure decreases.

Common BBs include metoprolol, labetalol, carvedilol, and bisoprolol. You can identify a beta blocker by its name; medications end in “-ol.”

Beta-blockers are not usually prescribed alone for blood pressure. Instead, they are typically prescribed to people who have high blood pressure in addition to other conditions, such as a recent heart attack or heart failure. Beta blockers are sometimes prescribed to people who have very high blood pressure, as a second or third medication, along with diuretics and ACE inhibitors.

Some types of beta blockers can increase a person’s risk of developing glucose intolerance and diabetes. However, it appears that newer beta-blockers, such as carvedilol and nebivolol, do not produce this effect.

People with airway conditions, such as asthma, should avoid some types of beta blockers because they can cause difficulty breathing or wheezing. Additionally, people with diabetes who are taking blood sugar-lowering medications should frequently monitor their sugar levels, as beta blockers can mask the typical symptoms of very low blood sugar. Some of the common side effects of BBs include fatigue and weight gain.

6. The other three classes of medicines

In very specific medical situations or when the first five classes of medications (or a combination of them) have not worked, doctors will opt for the last three medications: alpha-1 blockers; central agents and alpha-2 agonists; and direct vasodilators. (There is also a fourth class of medication, called direct renin inhibitors, but they are rarely used.)

Some common medications within these three classes include doxazosin, clonidine, hydralazine, and minoxidil. Generally, these medications are reserved for people who have the most difficult-to-treat blood pressure conditions, often requiring three or four medications to control.

It is important to note that these classes of medications generally have more side effects and have not shown the same cardiovascular protection as the others.

In men with benign prostatic hypertrophy, a condition in which the prostate enlarges, alpha-1 blockers are commonly prescribed as a second medication to help with any urinary difficulties and to treat high blood pressure disease.

7 questions about the treatment of high blood pressure

What is the treatment of high blood pressure?

The treatment of high blood pressure disease necessarily involves making some lifestyle changes. If this is not enough, it will be necessary to resort to pharmacological treatment.

Lifestyle change is, frankly, the hardest thing to achieve. Although at the beginning we are very motivated by the novelty and the desire to be cured, maintaining this variation of behavior so anchored in ourselves over time requires an effort that few achieve. However, if you become aware that by integrating these changes into your life you can benefit from not taking any medication, perhaps the effort has meaning. But an initial sacrifice is of no use if this change is not internalized as a  new healthy way of life.

*Weight loss: BMI should be kept in check.

*Give up smoking

*Follow a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean. If the Anglo-Saxon influence is not allowed to cloud the good habits we have here, we will be eating a heart-healthy diet appropriate for high blood pressure.

*Reduce the amount of salt in the diet. Food already contains the salt necessary for the body, it is not necessary to season it further. By trying foods without the salt to which we have become accustomed, we will discover new and delicious flavors, and our bodies will appreciate it.

*Do regular aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking for 30 minutes three times a week.

*Limit alcohol: drink no more than two drinks a day for men and one drink a day for women and those over 65 years of age. “A drink” means a glass of wine or a beer.

When lifestyle changes are not enough, pharmacological treatment of high blood pressure is used. The medications that are used to treat this condition are:

*Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)

*Angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists (ARA2)

*Diuretics

*Beta-blockers

*Calcium antagonists

What type of diet should I follow if I have high blood pressure disease?

a) Use olive oil as the main addition fat

It is the most used oil in Mediterranean cuisine. It is a food rich in vitamin E, beta-carotene, and monounsaturated fatty acids, which gives it cardioprotective properties. This food represents a treasure within the Mediterranean diet, it has endured through centuries among regional gastronomic customs and has given dishes a unique flavor and aroma.

b) Red meat should be consumed in moderation and, if possible, as part of stews and other recipes. And processed meats, in small quantities and as ingredients in snacks and dishes

Meats contain protein, iron, and animal fat in varying amounts. Excessive consumption of animal fats is not good for your health. Therefore, consumption in small quantities is recommended, preferably of lean meats, and as part of dishes based on vegetables and cereals.

c) Eat plenty of plant-based foods: fruits, vegetables, legumes, mushrooms and nuts

Vegetables and fruits are the main sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber in our diet and at the same time provide us with a large amount of water. It is essential to consume 5 servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Thanks to their high antioxidant and fiber content, they can help prevent, among others, some cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer.

d) Bread and foods from cereals, such as pasta, rice, and, especially, their whole grain products, should be part of the daily diet. The everyday consumption of pasta, rice, and cereals is necessary due to their wealthy carbohydrate composition. They provide us with an important part of the energy necessary for our daily activities.

e) Eat plenty of fish and eggs in moderation

The consumption of oily fish is endorsed at least as soon as or twice a week, because its fats, though of animal origin, have residences very comparable to the fat of vegetable foundation to which defensive characteristics towards ailments are attributed. cardiovascular.

Eggs contain very good quality proteins, fats, and many vitamins and minerals, which make them a complete food. Eating three or four eggs a week is a good alternative to meat and fish.

f) Fresh fruit should be the usual dessert. Sweets and cakes should be consumed occasionally

Fruits are very nutritious foods that add color and flavor to our daily diet and are also a good alternative mid-morning and as a snack.

g) Water is the drink par excellence in the Mediterranean. Wine should be taken in moderation and during meals

Water is essential in our diet. Wine is a traditional food in the Mediterranean diet that can have beneficial health effects when consumed in moderation and in the context of a balanced diet.

h) Perform physical activity every day, since it is as important as eating properly

Staying physically active and doing physical exercise adapted to our abilities every day is very important to maintain good health.

In summary:

*More fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products

*Fewer foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol, such as fried foods

*More cereal products, more fish, chicken and nuts

*Less red meat and less sweets

*More foods rich in magnesium, potassium, and calcium

i) Little processed, fresh, and seasonal foods are the most suitable

It is important to take advantage of seasonal products since, especially in the case of fruits and vegetables, it allows us to consume them at their best, both for the contribution of nutrients and for their aroma and flavor.

J) Consume dairy products daily, mainly yogurt and cheeses

Dairy products are excellent sources of proteins of high biological value, minerals (calcium, phosphorus), and vitamins. The consumption of fermented milk (yogurt) is associated with a series of health benefits because these products contain live microorganisms capable of improving the balance of the intestinal flora.

What are the side effects of drugs to treat high blood pressure disease?

As with any medication, drugs that treat hypertension have side effects. Any medication used to lower blood pressure can cause vertigo or dizziness if blood pressure drops too low.

Other side effects may be:

*With diuretics there is an increase in the amount of urine and the number of times it is passed, and a decrease in the concentration of potassium in the blood may occur.

*ACE inhibitors: can cause a dry, persistent cough and raise potassium levels in the blood.

*Angiotensin receptor antagonists: can increase the concentration of potassium in the blood.

*Calcium antagonists: slow the heart rate and can cause constipation and swelling of the ankles.

*Beta blockers: decrease libido, and can cause drowsiness and a lower heart rate.

When should I call my doctor?

If high blood pressure disease is diagnosed, it is important to visit the doctor regularly. The doctor will answer all the questions that arise.

However, there may be other times when it would be advisable to bring your visit forward, such as:

*If you are not responding to the prescribed treatment and your blood pressure remains high, there could be other disorders causing hypertension.

*Or if any side effects of blood pressure medication appear. If this occurs, the doctor may adjust the dose of the medication or try another group of drugs.

Are there medications that cause high blood pressure disease?

Some medicines used to treat other diseases can cause hypertension, such as amphetamines, central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, corticosteroids, hormones (including birth control pills), some migraine medicines, cyclosporine, and erythropoietin.

Additionally, many over-the-counter medications, such as some bronchodilators or some appetite suppressants, can cause hypertension.

Do not stop taking any medications on your own, including antihypertensive medications, without consulting your doctor.

What complications can hypertension cause?

The excess pressure on artery walls that causes high blood pressure disease can damage blood vessels and organs in the body. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage. Uncontrolled high pressure can lead to complications such as:

*Heart attack or stroke: Hardening and thickening of the arteries can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or other complications.

*Aneurysm: the weakening of blood vessels and the appearance of bulges in them causes the formation of an aneurysm, if it ruptures, it can be life-threatening.

*Heart failure: When blood pressure is high, the heart has to work harder to pump blood. Distension causes the walls of the heart’s pumping chamber to thicken. This condition is called left ventricular hypertrophy. Eventually, the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs, causing heart failure.

*Kidney problems: High blood pressure disease can cause the blood vessels in the kidneys to narrow or weaken, causing damage to them.

*Eye problems: Increased blood pressure can cause the blood vessels in the eyes to thicken, narrow, or break. Which can cause vision loss.

*Metabolic syndrome: consists of a set of metabolic disorders, the irregular breakdown of sugar. It includes an increase in waist size, high triglyceride levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL or good cholesterol) levels, high blood pressure, and elevated blood glucose levels. These conditions can increase your chances of having diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

*Changes in memory or understanding: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can also affect the ability to think, remember, and learn.

*Dementia: Narrowing or blockage of the arteries can limit blood flow to the brain. This can cause a certain type of dementia, called vascular dementia. A stroke that disrupts blood flow to the brain can also lead to vascular dementia.

What are the risk factors for high blood pressure

Many risk factors can cause High blood pressure disease, including:

*Age: up to approximately 64 years, it is more common in men. Women are more likely to develop it after age 65.

*Race: appears at an earlier age in black-skinned people than in white-skinned people.

*Family background.

*Obesity or overweight.

*Lack of exercise.

*Tobacco or vaping use. Smoking, chewing tobacco, or vaping immediately increases blood pressure for a short period.

*Too much salt.

*Low potassium levels.

*Excessive alcohol consumption: Alcohol consumption has been associated, especially in men.

*Stress: High ranges of stress can lead to a brief enlarge in blood pressure.

*Certain continual conditions: Kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea are some of the ailments that can lead to excessive blood pressure.

*Pregnancy: can sometimes cause high blood pressure.

Although high blood pressure is more common in adults, children can also have high blood pressure. For some children, it may be due to kidney or heart problems, but an increasing number of children are being affected by poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and lack of exercise.

Finally, High blood pressure disease or hypertension


Blood pressure chart:

Blood pressure chart and High blood pressure disease: chart, symptoms, causes, more
blood pressure chart

High blood pressure is a common disease that affects the body’s arteries, also known as hypertension. High blood pressure occurs when the force exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries is constantly very high, so the heart must work harder to pump blood.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), and hypertension generally corresponds to a blood pressure reading of 130/80 millimeters of mercury or higher.
The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association divide blood pressure into four general categories:
*Normal blood pressure. Blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg.
*High blood pressure. The maximum value is 120 to 129 mm Hg and the minimum value is below (not above) 80 mm Hg.
*Stage 1 hypertension. The maximum value ranges from 130 to 139 mm Hg and the minimum value is between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
*Stage 2 hypertension. The maximum value is 140 mm Hg or higher and the minimum value is 90 mm Hg.
Blood pressure greater than 180/120 millimeters of mercury is considered a hypertensive crisis or crisis. If these values ​​occur, urgent medical attention should be sought. When high blood pressure is not treated it increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other serious health problems.

Read more: Garlic supplement for high blood pressure disease

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