Dental Health

Most common oral diseases

We will talk about the most common diseases or problems that you may suffer from in your mouth and what the characteristics of each of them are so that you know how to identify them and know if you suffer from them.

If you have any of them, the ideal is to visit your trusted dental clinic immediately.

How to prevent oral diseases?

At  Clínicas Den we want to remind you that the prevention of oral diseases is very important, so going to the dentist periodically is key to preventing them. For this reason, at our Dental Clinic in Barcelona, we are committed to prevention to avoid major health problems.

We always recommend visiting your dentist approximately every 6 months, and not only when there is already pain and the pathology has already worsened. Remember that prevention in dentistry is essential to have good dental health.

Other tips to prevent oral diseases

In addition to visiting the dentist periodically, there are other tips that we can give you to take care of your dental health and prevent dental diseases:

*Brush your teeth regularly after each meal to remove any food debris that may have stuck to them and the gums.

*Perform complete dental hygiene. Include brushing for a minimum of 2 minutes and using dental floss and an oral antiseptic.

*Eat a proper diet, that is, avoid excess sugars or foods that stick to the teeth to avoid tooth decay or other dental diseases.

The 13 most common oral diseases

1. Bleeding gums:

Bleeding gums are a very common symptom of gum disease. During the first stage, this pathology is known as gingivitis. If left untreated, it can progress to more serious periodontitis or pyorrhea.

If we fail to remove plaque when we brush or floss our teeth, it can cause gingivitis. This oral biofilm contains germs that attack the gingiva, producing constantly inflamed and irritated gums.

Like gum lumps, bleeding gums can also be a sign of infection or trauma due to low immunity.

In rare cases, bleeding gums may be signs of a blood disorder.

Read more: Gum disease receding gums treatment

2. Lumps in the mouth:

Lumps on the gums can arise from various causes as we will explain below:

*They may indicate an oral infection such as local abscesses.

When plaque, tooth decay, and food debris get stuck between our teeth, they can cause oral infections. This is more likely to occur when the immune system is low.

*Oral trauma is one of the most common causes of lumpy gums.

This problem can occur when you hit your mouth when you eat very hot foods or drinks, or when your mouth is getting used to braces or dentures.

*Dental cysts are bubble-shaped lumps that form on the gums. Most of them form near the roots of buried or dead teeth. Although they can be painful, especially if infected, many are asymptomatic.

While small dental cysts often do not need extraction, large cysts can weaken the jaw and put pressure on the teeth.

Dental surgery can remove the cyst and treat the dead root tissue to prevent its return.

*Pregnant women may also notice small bumps near their gum lines. Called pyogenic granuloma or granuloma gravidarum, these lumps are simply caused by pregnancy hormones and are nothing to worry about.

*More serious problems, such as oral cancers and tumors of the teeth or jaw, can also cause gum lumps.

These conditions are much rarer, but remembering that they occur is a good reason to investigate any unusual lumps on our gums.

3. Cavities:

Dental caries is an oral pathology that is mainly caused by the accumulation of bacterial plaque after eating food and not following an adequate oral cleaning habit.

If you do not act in time, not only the external part of the tooth such as the enamel will be damaged, but also the internal part until reaching the nerve endings.

You may suffer from chipped teeth if you notice the following symptoms:

*Brown or black spots

*Pain when eating food

*Tooth hypersensitivity

*Holes in teeth

4. Bad breath:

Currently, bad breath or halitosis (chronic bad breath) is a problem that affects a large part of the population.    

Both present in the same way: unpleasant odor in our mouth, although their causes are different.

The main reason for having bad breath may be due to not having good oral hygiene, while halitosis is a pathology caused by various reasons such as suffering from diabetes, suffering from periodontal diseases, or diseases related to the digestive tract, among others.

5. Herpes:

Oral herpes is an infection that can occur on the lips, tongue, throat, or gums, causing a series of small and very painful lesions in the mouth.

Its most common symptoms are:

*Persistent pain when eating or swallowing food

*Itching and tingling in or around the areas where herpes has appeared

*Heat in the affected area

*Fever before the rash

6. Dry mouth

Dry mouth syndrome or xerostomia is a very common pathology when dry mouth is felt continuously and this is due to the absence of salivation in the oral cavity.

These are the main reasons why the salivary glands decrease saliva production:

*Smoking in the teeth and mouth

*Consumption of certain medications such as antihistamines or antidepressants

*Treatments such as chemotherapy


*Anxiety or stress

*Diabetes or lupus

7. Tooth sensitivity

More than once you will have felt tooth sensitivity when drinking cold or too hot drinks. This hypersensitivity is a very common problem in dentistry that, if not treated properly, can damage the nerve and lead to more severe oral diseases.

You can suffer from it for the following reasons :


*Poorly fitting dental crowns or veneers

*Having cavities in your teeth

*Bad bite

Read more: Tooth sensitivity to cold: cause, symptoms, remedy & more

8. Lingual papillitis

Lingual papillitis occurs when small painful lumps or swollen papillae appear on the tongue.

This problem is very common when these circumstances occur; We accidentally bite our tongue or drink too hot foods and drinks.

Likewise, if you suffer from stress it can also arise easily. Although it may be annoying, it will most likely pass in a few days without treatment.

It is a common disease in children and is even contagious and can cause fever and swollen glands. It generally goes away without treatment in about two weeks.

To reduce its symptoms you can rinse your mouth with salt water and eat soft, cold foods such as ice cream.

9. Sores or thrush

Unlike herpes, mouth sores or canker sores appear inside the mouth, that is, in its soft tissue, and are not contagious. You can recognize them because they appear with a small white circular shape. But why do they appear?

*Rough brushing

*Bites or trauma

*Lack of vitamins

*Dental appliances


*In periods of stress or anxiety

10. Bruxism

If you constantly grind or clench your teeth, you should know that you suffer from bruxism. 

Treatments for this problem seek to prevent this harmful habit from affecting the structure of the teeth, the temporomandibular joint, or the chewing muscles.

11. Swollen tongue

Our tongue can become swollen suddenly for various reasons and can last from hours to lengthening for a while.

Glossitis can present with the appearance of an enlarged tongue, with various lesions on its surface and greater sensitivity.

When can a swollen tongue appear?

*It is a very common symptom of oral infections.

Certain bacteria or herpes in this part of our body can cause these infections, especially if we find our body’s defenses low.

*Tumors located on the tongue and gums can also cause them to swell.

*If your tongue suddenly swells, the culprit may be none other than countless allergies.

This reaction is very common after ingesting foods or certain medications to which we are not tolerant.

*If tongue inflammation comes on gradually, it could be low iron levels or strep throat.

*If we suffer oral trauma, we may also notice how our tongue and gums become inflamed.

12. Throat spots

It is very common to have white or yellowish spots and pieces in the back of the throat. This may arise from tonsil stones or stones.

Tonsilloliths are a common and minor problem for some people who still have their tonsils. These are formed from waste, such as mucus and bacteria, that is collected by the tonsillar tissue.

Tonsil stones can become calcified if they are not removed.

Patients prone to tonsillar debris often suffer from bad breath, as debris collected by the tonsillar tissue settles in the mouth.

13. Bacterial plaque:

We understand bacterial plaque as the excessive accumulation of microorganisms from the digestive flora on the oral surface. If it is not controlled, the bacterial mass adheres to the teeth, gums, and tongue, giving rise to periodontal problems of an infectious nature.

This plaque is a practically imperceptible layer of gelatinous texture that sticks to the teeth and enters the dental fissures, damaging the teeth and the gingival structure. It is a thin film made up of more than 200 bacterial species, water, cells, white blood cells, and food remains.

In short, it is one of the main causes of oral disease. Suffering from gingivitis, halitosis, cavities, or periodontitis is directly related to the presence of plaque in the oral cavity.

Read more: Most common tongue diseases, symptoms, treatment & more