Summary of what is a dangerous level of blood sugar:

When insulin metabolism does not function correctly, tissue cells stop assimilating glucose correctly and it accumulates in the blood. The alarm should sound when fasting blood glucose levels are between 100 and 125 mg/dl and after eating between 140 and 199 mg/dl.

These figures determine what is known as a prediabetic state, in which diabetes mellitus or type 2 has not yet established itself but is the prelude to the disease. In these cases, changes in lifestyle habits (losing some weight, eating a balanced diet, and practicing daily exercise) may be enough to control the situation and delay and even prevent the development of diabetes.

We speak of diabetes when blood glucose is above 126 mg/dl on an empty stomach and 200 mg/dl two hours after meals. Above these figures, if adequate treatment is not received, what is called a diabetic coma can occur at any time.

INSULIN:

Insulin is a hormone produced naturally by way of the pancreas. And how does diabetes have an effect on the pancreas?

Alterations in its production cause hyperglycemia, an uncontrolled increase in blood sugar levels that cannot be efficiently absorbed by cells, which causes numerous health problems.

This is where another type of insulin comes into play, the one obtained artificially chemically, which acts as a substitute for natural insulin.

What is a dangerous level of blood sugar?

A dangerous level of blood sugar above 300 mg/dL recommends immediately informing your doctor. In severe cases, very high blood sugar levels (well above 300 mg/dL)

Slightly high blood sugar

If your blood sugar levels are continually above your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), You may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of fluids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is at this level. 

Moderately to severely high blood sugar:

If your blood sugar levels are continually high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. 

WHY DO BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS RISE AT NIGHT?

When you go to bed, your blood sugar reading is 110, but when you wake up in the morning, it has risen to 150. Why does this happen?

To understand how blood sugar can increase overnight without eating anything, we have to look at where glucose comes from and where it goes while you sleep.

During the day, the carbohydrates we consume are converted into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream. Some of this glucose goes to the liver, where it is stored for later use.

At night, while we sleep, the liver releases glucose into the bloodstream. The liver acts as a glucose store and keeps us in reserves until breakfast. The amount of glucose used matches the amount of glucose released by the liver, so the blood sugar level should remain constant.

How to measure blood glucose

In healthy people, measuring blood glucose is usually included in any blood or urine analysis, especially when it comes to people who are obese, over 50 years old, or those who have been diagnosed with high blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia. In both cases, blood and urine samples must be obtained on an empty stomach.

If these are people already diagnosed with diabetes, they should measure their blood glucose levels every morning when they get up and before having breakfast. To do this, they must use a glucometer, which is a device in which a test strip impregnated with a drop of blood is inserted, which is obtained by means of a small prick on a finger. This provides the result in just a few seconds.

Other tests, such as oral glucose tolerance or glycated hemoglobin, are reserved for specific cases, such as uncontrolled diabetic patients or pregnant women at risk of developing gestational diabetes.

Main causes of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood glucose level, or when the body cannot use the insulin it produces.

The pancreas is a giant gland at the back of the belly that produces the hormone insulin.

Insulin moves glucose from the blood into the cells, where it is converted into energy.

In type 2 diabetes, there are several reasons why the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes

Three of the main risk factors are:

Age: over 40 years old (over 25 years old for people of Native American, Afro-Caribbean, Black, South Asian or Chinese descent)

Genetics: having a shut relative with the condition, such as a parent, brother, or sister.

Weight: overweight or obese

People of Native American, South Asian, and Afro-Caribbean descent also have a higher risk of developing complications, such as heart disease and kidney failure, at a younger age than the rest of the population.

Age:

Your danger of developing kind two diabetes will increase with age. This may additionally be due to the fact human beings have a tendency to reap weight and exercise much less as they age.

Eating a healthy, balanced diet, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy weight are ways to prevent and control diabetes.

People of Native American, South Asian, Chinese, and Afro-Caribbean descent have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes at a much younger age. People of European descent over the age of 40 have a higher risk of developing the disease.

However, in recent years young people from all of these groups have been developing the condition.

It is additionally more and more frequent for children, as young as seven years in some cases, to improve kind 2 diabetes.

Being overweight or obese

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are overweight or obese.

The WHO determined that a body mass index (BMI) of:

  • 25 or more puts you in the overweight range
  • 30 or more puts you in the obese range

However, some groups have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

  • Asians with a BMI score of 23 or higher are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes
  • Asians with a BMI of 27.5 or higher are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Fat around your stomach (abdomen) increases your risk. This is because it releases chemicals that can alter the body’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems.

This increases your risk of developing a number of serious conditions, including:

*coronary heart disease

*stroke

*some types of cancer

Measuring your waist is a quick way to assess your diabetes risk.

Some agencies have a greater threat of creating kind 2 diabetes, based totally on their waist measurements:

*Women with a waist size of 80 cm (31.5 inches) or more

*Asian men with a waist size of 89 cm (35 inches) or larger

*men with fair or dark skin with a waist size of 94 cm (37 inches) or more

Search the Internet for a body mass index calculator to find out if you are a healthy weight for your height.

Exercising regularly and reducing your body weight by 5% could reduce your risk of getting diabetes by more than 50%.

Other risks:

Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes also increases if your blood glucose level is higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes.

This is sometimes called prediabetes.

Prediabetes can progress to type 2 diabetes if you don’t take preventive measures such as making changes to your diet and physical activity.

Women who have had diabetes during pregnancy also have a higher risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy.

What a dangerous level of blood sugar causes

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are caused by the absence, insufficient production, or lack of response of the body’s cells to the hormone insulin. Insulin is a key regulator of the body’s metabolism. After meals, food is digested in the stomach and intestines.

The sugar molecules (glucose) are absorbed directly into the bloodstream and blood glucose levels rise. Under normal circumstances, rising blood glucose levels signal specific cells in the pancreas, called beta cells, to secrete insulin into the bloodstream.

Insulin, in turn, allows glucose to enter the cells of the body which can be burned for energy or stored for future use.

In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas produce little or no insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to enter the body’s cells. Once glucose enters a cell, it is used for fuel. Without adequate insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of entering cells.

The body is unable to use this glucose as an energy source despite high levels in the bloodstream, causing increased hunger.

Also, high blood glucose levels cause the patient to urinate more, leading to excessive thirst. Between 5 and 10 years after diagnosis, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are completely destroyed and no more insulin is produced.

The genuine purpose of kind 1 diabetes is unknown. Each year, more than 13,000 younger humans are identified with kind 1 diabetes. New instances are much less frequent amongst adults over the age of 20. Type two diabetes normally develops in obese older humans who come to be resistant to the outcomes of insulin over time.

When kind two diabetes is diagnosed, the pancreas generally produces adequate insulin, however for unknown reasons, the physique can’t use the insulin effectively. This is called insulin resistance.

This means that the insulin produced by the pancreas cannot connect with fat and muscle cells to let in glucose and produce energy. This causes hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). To compensate, the pancreas produces more insulin. Cells sense this influx of insulin and become even more resistant, resulting in a vicious cycle of high glucose and often high insulin.

Inflammation is also common among people with type 2 diabetes. Inflammatory markers (chemicals in the body that lead to inflammation), such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein, have been found to increase in people with type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs gradually. Most humans with kind 2 diabetes are obese at the time of diagnosis. However, the disease can also develop in thin people, especially the elderly.

What is a dangerous level of blood sugar checkups for diabetics

Contact your doctor:

As type 2 diabetes is a long-term condition, you should be in regular contact with your doctor. Your GP or care team will need to check your eyes, feet, and nerves regularly, as they can also be affected by diabetes.

You should also have regular exams, at least once a year, to check how well your diabetes is being controlled.

A blood sample will be taken from your arm and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test will be carried out. This gives your blood glucose levels for the last two or three months.

Precautionary measures:

People with chronic illnesses, such as type 2 diabetes, are advised to get a flu vaccine every year.

Santa Fe Hospital offers vaccines every year, sponsored by the national government.

A pneumococcal vaccination is also recommended, which protects against a serious chest infection called pneumococcal pneumonia.

This vaccine must be requested in advance at the   Nursing Department since it must be requested from the ministry.

Check your heart:

You should have your cholesterol (blood fat) and blood pressure checked at least once every 6 months.

Diabetes increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke so it is important to detect and control high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

If you are already being treated for high cholesterol and high blood pressure, continue taking your medication.

Diabetes also worsens the harmful effects of smoking on your heart. Get help to quit smoking.

Check your feet:

Your feet should be checked every year by your GP, diabetes nurse, or podiatrist. Be in regular contact with foot care specialists (a podiatrist) so that any problems can be caught early.

If you have diabetes, you are at higher risk of developing foot problems, including foot ulcers and infections from minor cuts and scrapes. This is because diabetes is associated with poor blood circulation in the feet, and glucose in the blood can damage the nerves.

Check your feet regularly for cuts, blisters, or scrapes, as you may not be able to feel them if the nerves in your feet are damaged.

Talk to your nurse if you notice any changes in your feet, including:

  • *Cuts, scrapes or blisters
  • *Pain or tingling
  • *Numb or non-feeling feet
  • *A minor foot injury that does not begin to heal within a few days

Talk to a doctor or nurse to learn how to cut your toenails.

Diabetic eye exam:

If you have type 2 diabetes, you should have your eyes examined once a year to check for diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye condition where the small blood vessels in the eye become damaged.

It can occur if your blood glucose level is too high for a long period of time (hyperglycemia).

People with diabetes should also visit an optician every two years for a regular vision test. The diabetic eye exam is specifically for diabetic retinopathy and not other eye conditions.

Pregnancy and diabetes

If you have diabetes and are thinking about having a baby, it is a good idea to discuss this with your doctor or care team.

Planning your pregnancy means making sure your blood glucose levels are controlled as best as possible before you become pregnant.

To reduce the risk of birth defects, you will need to closely monitor your blood glucose level, especially before you become pregnant and during the first eight weeks of your baby’s development.

Must also:

*Review your medications – some tablets used to treat type 2 diabetes can harm your baby, so you may have to switch to insulin injections

*take a higher dose of folic acid tablets – folic acid helps prevent your baby from developing spinal cord problems and it is recommended that all women planning to have a baby take folic acid; women with diabetes are advised to take 5 mg each day

*check your eyes – retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the eyes, is a risk for all people with diabetes; Because pregnancy can put extra pressure on the small vessels in the eyes, it is important to treat retinopathy before becoming pregnant.

What is the dawn phenomenon with diabetes?

A rise in blood sugar that occurs at approximately 3 a.m. m., the time at which you wake up is called the “dawn phenomenon.”

The liver is supposed to release enough glucose to replace what is used, and insulin works as a messenger to tell the liver how much is enough. However, if there is not enough insulin (as in type 1 diabetes) or if there is enough insulin, but it cannot transmit the message to the liver (as in type 2 diabetes), the liver begins to release glucose too quickly.

Additionally, levels of hormones such as cortisol begin to rise during the first hour of the morning, which can contribute to altered insulin sensitivity.

What’s the score? Blood sugar levels rise. For this reason, blood sugar levels can rise between bedtime and the time you wake up.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT?

You may be able to modify the timing of your meals, medications, or insulin injections to help prevent the dawn phenomenon. First, keep a detailed record of what happens at night and in the morning, including blood sugar levels, eating habits, medications or insulin, and physical activity. Next, talk to your healthcare professional or a diabetes expert about changes you can make to avoid the dawn phenomenon.

How to recognize the symptoms of diabetes

There are many symptoms that may indicate that you suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, if you feel any, it is important to seek help from a specialist as soon as possible, since it is an easily controllable disease if diagnosed in time. and the appropriate treatment is applied in each case.

*Extreme fatigue from activities that do not require too much physical effort.

*Feeling of constant thirst, usually accompanied by an increased need to pee.

*Blurred vision, and difficulty focusing on objects, which is why special attention must be paid when taking care of your eyesight with diabetes.

*Suffering from infections with some frequency.

*Greater difficulty for wounds to heal.

*Tingling in both the upper and lower extremities.

*Nutritional alterations, such as an uncontrollable increase in appetite or the opposite, excessive weight loss for no apparent reason.

*Darkening of the epidermis in certain areas of the body, such as the armpits.

These clear symptoms of diabetes do not always have to point towards type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it is necessary to confirm its existence or not in order to avoid greater problems.

GLUCOSE LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETICS

Before suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is possible to detect prediabetes by paying attention to blood sugar levels both upon waking up, even on an empty stomach and two hours after eating.

The glucose levels that indicate prediabetes are these:

*Between 100 and 125 mg/dl on an empty stomach.

*Between 140 and 199 mg/dl after eating.

If the blood glucose level is higher than those mentioned (more than 126 mg/dl on an empty stomach and more than 200 mg/dl after eating), we will have type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The consequences of high blood glucose levels and the failures in the body derived from them could affect the heart, so it is also advisable to have cardiological check-ups with some regularity.

Type 2 diabetes information

Diabetes is a disease with no cure that causes the blood sugar level to be very high.

There are two types of diabetes:

*Type 1 diabetes – when the body’s defenses attack and destroy the cells that produce insulin

*Type 2 diabetes – when the body does not produce enough insulin or when the body’s cells do not react to insulin

Type 2 diabetes is the most common.

During pregnancy, women have blood sugar so high that the body cannot produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is called gestational diabetes.

Problems caused by type 2 diabetes:

If you have type 2 diabetes, you will need to take care of your health and have regular checkups because it can lead to:

  • *Heart disease and stroke
  • *Loss of sensation and pain (nerve damage) – causing problems with sex
  • *Foot problems (ulcers and infections)
  • *Vision problems or blindness
  • *Miscarriage or stillbirth
  • *Kidney problems

Controlling your blood sugar and getting regular tests is the best way to reduce your risk of complications.

Prediabetes:

Many other people have prediabetes: that is, they have blood sugar levels above the normal level, but without yet having diabetes. This is called prediabetes.

If your blood sugar is above normal, you are at risk of developing diabetes.

It is very important to be diagnosed as soon as possible because it will progressively get worse if left untreated.

When to go to the doctor?

Visit your doctor as soon as possible if you feel the main symptoms of diabetes, which include:

  • *Very thirsty
  • *Urinating more frequently than usual, especially at night
  • *Very tired
  • *Weight loss and muscle loss
  • *Itching of the penis or vagina, or episodes of genital ulcers
  • *Cuts or wounds that heal slowly
  • *Blurry vision

Many people with type 2 diabetes may not know it for years because the first symptoms may be unrecognizable.

What is the best diet for a diabetic person?

The ADA recommends that people with diabetes eat a healthy, low-fat diet rich in grains, fruits, and vegetables. A healthy diet typically includes 10 to 20% of daily calories from protein, such as poultry, fish, dairy products, and plant sources.

People with diabetes who also have kidney disease should work with their healthcare providers to limit protein intake to 10% of daily calories. A low-fat diet typically includes 30% or less of daily calories from fat, less than 10% from saturated fat, and up to 10% from polyunsaturated fat (such as fish fat).

Carbohydrates have a tendency to have the best impact on blood glucose. The stability between the quantity of carbohydrates eaten and the quantity of insulin handy determines how excessively the blood glucose degree rises after ingredients or snacks. To assist in manipulating blood glucose, humans must watch how many carbohydrate servings they devour every day.

Foods that are high in carbohydrates include grains, pasta, and rice; breads, crackers, and cereals; starchy vegetables, including potatoes, corn, peas, and winter squash; legumes such as beans, peas, and lentils; fruit and fruit juices; milk and yogurt; and sweets and desserts.

Non-starchy vegetables like spinach, kale, broccoli, salad greens, and green beans are very low in carbohydrates. Carbohydrate counting can ensure that the correct amount of carbohydrates is consumed at each meal and snack.

A dietitian can assist every character in enhancing a consuming sketch that is proper for them.

Also, weight loss should be part of the plan for people with type 2 diabetes. Moderate weight loss (achieved by cutting calories to 250 to 500 a day and exercising regularly) controls not only blood sugar levels blood, but also blood pressure and cholesterol. People with diabetes who eat healthy, well-balanced diets do not need to take additional vitamins or minerals to treat their condition.

Exercise

Exercise plays an important role in both the prevention and control of diabetes, as it lowers blood sugar and helps insulin work more efficiently in the body. Exercise also improves cardiovascular fitness by improving blood flow and increasing the heart’s pumping power, promoting weight loss and lowering blood pressure.

However, exercise has the greatest value when it is done regularly, at least 3 to 4 sessions per week for 30 to 60 minutes per session. Just 20 minutes of walking, 3 times a week, has a proven beneficial effect. People with type 2 diabetes who exercise regularly have been shown to lose weight and control their blood pressure better, thereby reducing their risk of cardiovascular disease (a major complication of diabetes). 

Studies have additionally proven that humans with kind 1 diabetes who workout usually decrease their want for insulin injections.

Best medicine for diabetes type 2

Diabetes medications should always be used in combination with lifestyle changes, especially diet and exercise, to improve diabetes symptoms. Medications include insulin, oral sulfonylureas (such as glimepiride, glyburide, and tolazamide), biguanides (Metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose), thiazolidinediones (such as rosiglitazone), and meglitinides (such as repaglinide and nateglinide).

A new agent in the fight against diabetes, exenatide (Byetta), is an injectable drug that lowers the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. 

In scientific studies, sufferers dealt with exenatide carried out decreased blood glucose ranges and misplaced weight. Exenatide was authorized by means of the US Food and Drug Administration in May 2005. Several other agents are under investigation, including sodium and glucose co-transport 2 inhibitors, G protein-coupled receptor agonists, and balanced double peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agents.

Nutrition in patients with type 2 diabetes

The glucose level in type 2 diabetic people is closely linked to the type of diet they follow. Hence, it is essential not only to radically reduce the intake of foods with sugar but also to greatly limit the eating of fatty, protein, or carbohydrate foods.

The type of nutrition will vary depending on each patient and the type of hyperglycemia they suffer from, so it is vital that each case be placed in the hands of a specialist. The key is to achieve an adequate weight and avoid any type of substance that can increase blood sugar concentration

What supplements are best for diabetes?

Nutrition and dietary supplements

Considerable research has been done on the relationship between diabetes and specific nutrients and dietary supplements. Dietary supplements may increase the effects of blood sugar-lowering medications, including insulin. 

When thinking about the use of dietary supplements or making dietary changes, be certain to talk about these adjustments with your fitness care company to make certain protection and appropriateness.

Supplements with hypoglycemic effects

Chrome. Found in a variety of foods and supplements, including liver, brewer’s yeast, cheese, meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, chromium appears to increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin. Researchers believe that chromium helps insulin pull glucose from the bloodstream into cells for energy.

The benefit of chromium supplementation for diabetes has been studied and debated for years. While some studies show no beneficial effects of chromium use for people with diabetes, other studies have shown that chromium supplementation can lower blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes and reduce the need for insulin in those with type 2 diabetes. type 1 diabetes. Most Americans consume at least 50 mcg of chromium in their diets each day. The National Research Council estimates that intake of 50 to 200 mcg per day is safe and effective.

Clinical studies showing better blood sugar control for people with diabetes have used doses of chromium picolinate ranging from 200 to 1,000 mcg daily. However, until long-term safety studies in humans are conducted with higher doses, it is best to use 200 mcg or less per day. Chromium can negatively interact with insulin and thyroid medications. Talk to your doctor if you have a history of kidney or liver disease or if you are being treated for a psychiatric disorder.

Magnesium. Several clinical studies have shown a strong association between low blood magnesium levels and type 2 diabetes. However, researchers are still unclear on the cause and effect of that association. They are investigating whether or not low magnesium degrees irritate blood sugar management in human beings with kind two diabetes or whether or not diabetes reasons magnesium deficiencies.

Some experts believe that low magnesium levels worsen blood sugar control and that foods high in magnesium (such as whole grains, green leafy vegetables, bananas, legumes, nuts, and seeds) or Magnesium supplements can promote healthy blood glucose levels. At least one small study suggests that taking magnesium supplements may improve insulin action and lower blood sugar levels, particularly in the elderly.

People with severe heart or kidney disease should not take magnesium supplements. People with diabetes should talk to their healthcare provider about the safety and appropriateness of taking magnesium supplements.

Magnesium can interact with some medications. Magnesium can lower blood pressure and cardiac output, and potentially interact with some cardiac medications. Excess magnesium can cause diarrhea.

Fiber. Studies suggest that a high-fiber diet can help

Natural tips for type 2 diabetes

Top natural supplements to lower blood sugar

Lower mean glucose and insulin levels in people who already have type 2 diabetes

Improve cholesterol and triglyceride levels in people with diabetes

In a large study of nurses in the United States, women who ate the most whole-grain foods in their diets were nearly 40% less likely to develop diabetes than women who ate the least. People with irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or other digestive problems should talk to their doctor before adding fiber to their diet.

Studies have also shown that cholesterol levels improve in people with type 2 diabetes after taking supplements of a soluble fiber known as psyllium (Plantago psyllium).

Beta-glucan is a soluble fiber derived from the cell walls of algae, bacteria, fungi, yeast, and plants. It is commonly used for its cholesterol-lowering effects. There are several human trials that support the use of beta-glucan for glycemic (blood sugar) control.

vanadium. Vanadium is an essential trace element present in the soil and in many foods. It appears to mimic the action of insulin, and in several human studies, vanadium sulfate (a form of vanadium) has increased insulin sensitivity in those with type 2 diabetes. Animal studies and some small human studies have also suggested that vanadium can lower blood glucose to normal levels (reducing the need for insulin) in people with diabetes.

A preliminary clinical study found that people with diabetes using insulin-given vanadium were able to reduce their insulin dose. Vanadium can slow blood clotting, so people taking blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin) and aspirin should check with their doctor before adding vanadium supplements to their regimen. People with a history of kidney problems should talk to their doctor before using vanadium supplements.

Melatonin. Melatonin is a natural hormone secreted in the brain. Studies link low melatonin secretion to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Melatonin can cause drowsiness and potentially interact with some psychiatric medications and medications used to treat insomnia.

Antioxidants

Antioxidants like beta-carotene and vitamin C are scavengers of free radicals, unstable and potentially harmful molecules generated by normal chemical reactions in the body. Free radicals are unstable because they lack an electron. In an attempt to replace this lost electron, free radical molecules react with neighboring molecules in a process called oxidation.

Some studies suggest that people with diabetes have higher levels of free radicals and lower levels of antioxidants. Preliminary clinical studies show that the following antioxidants may improve diabetes (by restoring blood glucose levels to the normal range) and reduce the risk of associated complications:

  • Vitamin E
  • Selenium
  • zinc
  • quercetin

Two additional substances that show preliminary evidence for possibly helping to control blood sugar include:

Biotin (a B-complex vitamin). Possibly useful for type 2 diabetes; Brewer’s yeast is a good source of biotin.

Vitamin B6. Possibly helpful for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Supplements with cardiovascular effects

Since insulin resistance is often associated with cardiovascular disease, people with diabetes may benefit from nutrients that help control high blood lipid levels, high blood pressure, or heart failure. Although the following supplements have been shown to improve cardiovascular health, there is some concern that they may raise blood glucose levels and interact with certain medications. People with diabetes interested in trying the following supplements should first check with their healthcare providers:

Omega-3 fatty acids

Although clinical studies have not shown that CoQ10 or omega-3 fatty acid supplements raise blood sugar levels, people with diabetes should discuss the safety and appropriateness of using them, or any other supplements, with their healthcare provider. healthcare provider or pharmacist, particularly if they are taking other medications. CoQ10 can potentially increase the blood’s clotting tendency, while omega-3 fatty acids can decrease it. 

Niacin in certain amounts can potentially harm the liver.

Work with your doctor to find the types and amounts of supplements that are right for you.

Additionally, the following antioxidants have been shown to improve cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Work with your doctor to see if these are appropriate for you, as they can potentially interact with other medications and may worsen other medical conditions:

Beta carotene

Vitamin C (1000 mg per day)

Vitamin E (800 IU per day)

Several clinical studies have also found that elevated levels of manganese may help protect against LDL oxidation (a process that contributes to the development of plaque in the arteries).

Herbs

People have long used herbal medicines in the treatment of diabetes. For example, the plant extract guanidine, which lowers blood glucose, prompted the development and use of biguanides, a commonly used oral medication for diabetes. Other herbs may have a role in controlling or preventing diabetes. Always talk to your healthcare provider about any herb you are considering using.

Some herbs can interact with medications, and others can lower your blood sugar. When combined with blood sugar-lowering medications, some herbs can make your blood sugar dangerously low.

Herbs that may have a role in controlling or preventing diabetes include:

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Bitter melon has traditionally been used as a remedy to lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Preliminary clinical studies have indicated that bitter melon may lower serum glucose levels. Bitter melon can be extremely dangerous to take during pregnancy.

Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum). Fenugreek seeds, a spice found in many curry preparations, are high in fiber and have been shown to regulate glucose and improve lipid levels in both animals and humans. In two small studies of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, fenugreek seed powder lowered blood glucose and improved blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, among other beneficial effects. 

Fenugreek can also have interaction with blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin).

Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre). Preliminary human research reports that gymnema may be beneficial in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes when added to diabetes medications taken by mouth or insulin. Gymnema can alter the ability to detect sweet tastes.

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). In a clinical study of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, taking 1, 3, or 6 grams of cinnamon per day lowered levels of glucose, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. Other clinical studies have found similar results. As a result, experts claim that cinnamon may play an important role in regulating blood sugar in people with diabetes.

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Although both Asian (Panax ginseng) and American (Panax quinquefolium) ginseng appear to lower blood glucose levels, only American ginseng has been studied scientifically. Several clinical studies report a blood glucose-lowering effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) in individuals with type 2 diabetes, both on fasting blood glucose and postprandial glucose levels.

A clinical study found that people with type 2 diabetes who take American ginseng before or along with a glucose meal experience a reduction in glucose levels after consuming the meal. American ginseng may not be appropriate for people with autoimmune diseases and may interact with several medications, including blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin), among others. People with a history of hormone-sensitive cancers should only use ginseng under their doctor’s supervision.

Acupuncture

Some researchers speculate that acupuncture may trigger the release of natural pain relievers and reduce debilitating symptoms of a diabetes complication known as neuropathy (nerve damage). In a clinical study of people with diabetes who suffered from chronic, painful neuropathy, acupuncture reduced pain and improved sleep in 77% of participants and eliminated the need for pain medication in 32% of participants. Given these findings, acupuncture may be a reasonable option for people with diabetes who have neuropathy and who do not find symptom relief or develop side effects from conventional drug treatment.

Mind-Body Medicine

Stressful life events can make diabetes worse in a number of ways. For example, stress stimulates the nervous and endocrine systems in ways that increase blood glucose levels and alter healthy behaviors (increasing the chances that an individual will consume excess calories and limit physical activity, a pattern that leads to to a high blood glucose level).

Therefore, it makes sense to consider stress management as part of diabetes treatment and prevention. 

Clinical research has stated that humans with diabetes who take part in biofeedback classes (a method that will increase cognizance and manage the body’s response to stress) are greater likely to acquire goal blood glucose tiers than those who no longer get hold of biofeedback. biofeedback.

Although different research has produced conflicting results, researchers and medical doctors agree that long-term stress probably makes diabetes worse and that biofeedback, tai chi, yoga, and different varieties of leisure can assist and inspire human beings with diabetes to exchange their habits to control their condition.

Clinical studies have reported that people with diabetes who participate in biofeedback sessions (a technique that increases awareness and control of the body’s response to stress) are more likely to achieve target blood glucose levels than those who do not receive biofeedback. biofeedback.

Although other studies have produced conflicting results, researchers and doctors agree that long-term stress probably makes diabetes worse and that biofeedback, tai chi, yoga, and other forms of relaxation can help motivate people with diabetes to change their habits to manage their condition.

Other considerations

Pregnancy

Women of childbearing age who have diabetes should consult an endocrine specialist about the benefits of controlling glucose levels before trying to conceive.

Approximately 4% of all pregnant women in the United States are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Risk factors for developing diabetes during pregnancy include:

Modest weight gain before pregnancy (11 to 22 pounds or more)

Family history of diabetes

tobacco use

African-American, Hispanic-American, or Asian descent

Age over 50 years at the time of conception

Normalizing glucose levels in women with gestational diabetes reduces the risk of complications, such as having an overweight baby, birth trauma, or the need for a cesarean section. If the mother’s glucose levels are not controlled, the baby may be stillborn or suffer complications, including brain or central nervous system defects, an abnormally large body or organs, heart or kidney abnormalities, asphyxia, respiratory distress, and heart failure. .

If dietary restrictions fail to improve glucose levels, a woman with gestational diabetes may need insulin. 

Women ought to know not to take oral diabetes medicinal drugs for the duration of pregnancy. Women who have increased gestational diabetes may additionally journey the circumstance once more in subsequent pregnancies. Gestational diabetes additionally will increase the threat of growing kind 2 diabetes later in life. Depressive signs are related to an improved hazard of diabetes.

 The association cannot be explained by the use of antidepressant medications or being overweight. Depression is a major risk factor for diabetes.

Prognosis and complications

People who keep tight control over their blood glucose levels can prevent or delay the development of long-term complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes generally has more complications than type 2 diabetes.

Long-term complications of diabetes can include:

Skin problems, together with bruising, dryness, itching, hair loss, warts, gangrene (tissue death), pores, and skin ulcers cognitive impairment.

Complications of diabetes mellitus

People ignore the seriousness of suffering from diabetes since it is evident that the person’s health and quality of life change. Having glucose at inappropriate levels for the body causes irreversible damage to organs and tissues such as blood vessels – which can cause stroke -, kidneys, heart, and eyes.

7 most common consequences in a diabetic patient:

1/ Sexual dysfunction: being diabetic, the circulatory and nervous system has lesions, which can lead a man to have erection difficulties.

2/ Heart: Heart attacks can occur.

3/ Wounds that do not heal can occur on the feet. This is known as an infection, ulceration, or destruction of deep tissues that occurs in the lower extremities.

4/ Skin: the patient suffers from sensitive, dry, and opaque skin, which can lead to the patient acquiring different skin infections.

5/ In the eyes there is damage to the tissues that lubricate and support vision. Glaucoma can cause vision, this is known as nerve damage. Therefore, the diabetic patient runs the risk of going blind.

6/ The gums and teeth collapse and sometimes the patient can lose their teeth.

7/ Renal disease. Excess glucose in the blood causes inflammatory and degenerative problems in the kidneys.

The pancreas in diabetics:

The pancreas is the body’s organ responsible for producing the hormone insulin, the foods that most stimulate this hormone are carbohydrates. Fast-absorbing carbohydrates such as sugars, sweets, ice cream, refined flour, etc. work harder on the pancreas than slow-absorbing carbohydrates like whole grains (rice, oats, wheat, corn); vegetables such as chard, spinach, lettuce, watercress; and some grains such as lentils, chickpeas or soybeans

And if in addition to simple carbohydrates, fats, and uric acid, soft drinks are consumed, among many other harmful foods the pancreas simply gets over-stimulated. The pancreas, as a purifying organ, must constantly absorb and neutralize all these harmful substances, but when it begins to give the first symptom of fatigue, immediate attention must be paid to it. This first

fatigue of the pancreas is known as pre-diabetes, that is, a tired pancreas that no longer produces the correct insulin. If this symptom is not given due attention, type 2 diabetes develops and over time type 1 diabetes is more likely to appear.

Diabetes:

Diabetes is a chronic (long-term) condition characterized by abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. People with diabetes either don’t make enough insulin, a hormone needed to convert sugar, starches, and other foods into energy needed for daily life, or they can’t use the insulin their bodies make. As a result, glucose accumulates in the bloodstream. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness, kidney disease, nerve disease, heart disease, and stroke.

Although an estimated 18.8 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), unfortunately, 7 million people (or nearly a third) don’t know they have type 2.

It is broadly diagnosed as one of the main motives for demise and disability.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize that it is the seventh leading cause of death.

Two main types of diabetes

Type 1. Also known as juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes, type 1 occurs when the cells in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin are destroyed by the immune system. As a result, the pancreas permanently loses its ability to produce enough insulin to properly regulate blood sugar levels. It is usually diagnosed in childhood and, although it can be controlled, it cannot be cured.

Type 2. This form of the disease makes up 90% or more of all diabetes cases. It usually develops in adulthood. It occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal and is made worse by poor food choices, a sedentary lifestyle, and being overweight. It’s a serious condition, but many people with type 2 diabetes don’t know they have it.

It is becoming more common due to the increasing number of older people, the rise in Obesity, and the lack of exercise. It can be improved, and in some cases even reversed, through lifestyle changes, such as adopting a healthy diet, becoming more active, and losing excess weight.

Prediabetes occurs in those individuals with blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. This condition increases the risk of developing type 2, stroke, and heart disease. In fact, people with diabetes are 2 to 4 times more likely than non-diabetics to develop heart disease. Prediabetes is also called impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or insulin resistance.

Some people have both IFG and IGT. In GIC, glucose levels are slightly high several hours after a person eats. In IGT, glucose levels are slightly higher than normal right after eating. Prediabetes is becoming more common. Many people with prediabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years.

Gestational diabetes is high blood glucose that develops at any time during pregnancy in a non-diabetic woman. 

4% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes. 

Although it usually goes away after delivery, the mother is at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

It can also be associated with genetic syndromes, surgery, medications, malnutrition, infections, and other diseases.

Main signs and symptoms of diabetes

Type 1: Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it usually begins in people under 30 years of age. Symptoms are usually severe and come on quickly. These include

  • Increased thirst
  • increased urination
  • Weight loss despite increased appetite
  • Nausea
  • vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fatigue
  • absence of menstruation

Type 2: People with type 2 diabetes often have no symptoms, and their condition is detected only when a routine test reveals high blood glucose levels. Occasionally, however, a person with type 2 diabetes may experience the symptoms listed below, which tend to come on slowly over time:

Numbness or burning sensation in the feet, ankles, and legs

  • Blurred or poor vision
  • Impotence
  • Fatigue
  • poor healing

In some cases, symptoms can resemble those of type 1 diabetes and come on more abruptly, for example:

  • Excessive urination and thirst
  • fungal infections
  • itching all over the body

Eat. In severe cases, high blood glucose can affect the distribution of water in brain cells, causing a state of profound unconsciousness or coma.

How to know if you have diabetes

According to the American Diabetes Association, all pregnant female must be screened for gestational diabetes in the course of their 0.33 trimester.

People age 45 and older should have their blood glucose levels checked every 3 years. Those who are at high risk of developing diabetes (such as people with a family history of the disease) should be screened more often.

Different sorts of exams are used to diagnose diabetes: random plasma glucose level, fasting plasma glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test.

If the fasting glucose level is between 100 and 125 mg/dL, the individual has a form of prediabetes called impaired fasting glucose (IFG), which means that the individual is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes but does not yet have the condition.

A level of 126 mg/dL or higher, confirmed by repeat testing on another day, means the individual has diabetes.

Other diagnostic tests for diabetes include the fructosamine test and hemoglobin A1c. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the A1c as the best test to determine if a person’s blood sugar level is under control over time. Testing should be done every 3 months for insulin-treated patients, during treatment changes, or when blood glucose is elevated.

For patients stable on oral agents, health professionals have recommended performing the A1c test at least twice a year.

The ADA currently recommends an A1c goal of less than 7%. Studies have reported that there is a 10% decrease in the relative risk of microvascular complications (injury to small blood vessels throughout the body),

such as diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease) or diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage), for every 1% reduction in hemoglobin A1c. Many nutrition-oriented physicians seek a much lower A1c as a goal for their patients.

People with diabetes should closely monitor their blood sugar levels and visit their doctor regularly.

Self-monitoring of blood glucose is achieved through checking the glucose content material of a drop of blood.

Regular tests tell you how well diet, medicine, and exercise are working together to control your diabetes. Dieticians can also be an integral part of care.

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

It is important that diabetes is diagnosed early so that treatment can be started as soon as possible.

The main symptoms are:

*Very thirsty

*Urinating more frequently than usual, especially at night

*Very tired

*Weight loss and muscle loss

*Itching of the penis or vagina, or episodes of genital ulcers

*Cuts or wounds that heal slowly

*Blurry vision

If you experience symptoms of diabetes, visit your GP as soon as possible. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and may order blood and urine tests.

The urine sample will be tested for glucose. Urine normally does not contain glucose, but if you have diabetes, glucose can pass to your kidneys and into your urine.

If your urine contains glucose, a specialized blood test known as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be used to determine if you have diabetes.

Lab tests:

The tests can be performed in the hospital laboratory.

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c):

HbA1c is used as a diagnostic test for diabetes and as a screening test for people at high risk of diabetes.

The HbA1c test gives your average blood glucose levels over the past two to three months.

An HbA1c level of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes.

In people who have been diagnosed with diabetes, the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test is also used to show how well their diabetes is being controlled.

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is recommended that your HbA1c be measured at least twice a year.

However, you can also want to have your HbA1c measured extra often if:

*You have recently been diagnosed with diabetes

*Blood glucose remains too high

*Your treatment plan has been changed

Unlike other laboratory tests, the HbA1c test can be performed at any time of the day and does not require any special preparation, such as fasting. 

However, the check can’t be used in positive situations, such as at some point in pregnancy.

The advantages associated with HbA1c testing make it the preferred method for assessing how well blood glucose levels are being controlled.

The glucose tolerance test:

A glucose tolerance test, sometimes known as an oral glucose tolerance test, can show if your body is having trouble processing glucose. You will be ordered when the diabetes profile results are inconclusive.

Before undergoing the test, you will be asked not to eat or drink certain liquids for 8-12 hours.

A blood sample will be taken before the test and blood glucose will be measured. You will then be given a glucose drink.

After consuming the glucose drink, your blood glucose will be measured once more after two hours. Since you will have a long time to wait between blood tests, you may want to bring something to read or listen to.

Risk factors of diabetes type 1

Family history of type 1 diabetes

Mother who had Preeclampsia (a condition characterized by a sharp rise in blood pressure during the third trimester of pregnancy)

Family records of autoimmune diseases, which include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, myasthenia gravis, Addison’s disease, or pernicious anemia.

Viral infections during childhood, including Mumps, Rubella, and coxsackie

Son of an older mother

Northern European or Mediterranean descent

Lack of breastfeeding and consumption of cow’s milk during lactation (although the theory is controversial and not widely accepted)

Risk factors of diabetes type 2

Family history of type 2 diabetes (one-quarter to one-third of all individuals with type 2 diabetes have a family history of the condition)

Age over 45 years

Excess body fat, particularly around the waist

A sedentary lifestyle and diet high in fat and calories

Abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides in the blood

High blood pressure

History of gestational diabetes or polycystic ovary syndrome (a hormonal disorder that causes women to have irregular periods or no periods at all)

African American, Hispanic American, or Native American descent (particularly from the Pima tribe in Arizona)

Low birth weight or malnutrition of the mother during pregnancy (this can cause metabolic disorders in the fetus leading to diabetes later in the child’s life).

Depression is associated with a 60% increased risk of type 2 diabetes

Preventive Care for Diabetes

Diabetes type 1

There is no proven way to prevent type 1 diabetes. However, research from Finland suggests that adequate amounts of vitamin D, especially in the first year of life, may lower the chances of developing type 1 diabetes in the first 30 years of life. In northern Finland (where annual exposure to sunlight is very limited) the researchers followed 10,000 babies for up to 30 years.

Those who received at least 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily (usually from cod liver oil) during the first year of life were significantly less likely to develop type 1 diabetes over 30 years than infants who received less. Other studies have confirmed that doses of 2,000 IU or more of vitamin D may have a strong protective effect against type 1 diabetes.

For this reason, caregivers of infants and children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes might consider taking supplements. Experts suggest supplementing these individuals at the higher end of the current US recommendations for vitamin D, which is 200 to 1,000 IU.

Type 2 diabetes

Considerable evidence from population-based studies suggests that type 2 diabetes is highly preventable, particularly through exercise and weight control. People who are physically inactive or overweight are much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Similarly, people who move from a non-westernized country to a Westernized country increase their risk of type 2 diabetes.

Studies suggest that you don’t need vigorous physical activity to reduce your risk of diabetes; moderate and regular exercise, such as walking for 30 minutes most days of the week, is enough. In general, the lifestyle changes recommended to treat diabetes can also help prevent the condition.

Diabetes treatment approach

The purpose of diabetes cure is to acquire and keep healthy blood glucose levels. A primary find out about referred to as the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) found that people with diabetes who kept their blood glucose levels close to normal reduced their risk of developing major complications of the condition.

People with diabetes can use the following therapies to help control their blood glucose levels and prevent complications:

Lifestyle changes, such as a well-balanced diet and regular exercise

Medications, particularly insulin for people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes

Supplements, including fiber and chromium

relaxation techniques

Acupuncture for pain from nerve damage

Bariatric surgery, for overweight and obese people to help control blood glucose levels

Lifestyle

People with diabetes can improve significantly with lifestyle changes, especially diet and exercise. People with type 2 diabetes can even eliminate the need for medication when they make appropriate lifestyle changes.

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